Results

Analysis of Results

Depending on the extent (12, 25, 37, or 67 markers) of the Y- test DNA you will receive a list of markers and their allele  values. After you have placed your order, a genetic test kit and instructions will be mailed to you. Upon its' return your genetic sample will be processed, and the results will be e-mailed to you and kept private and confidential. A comparison between your specific genetic markers and those of others in databases can then be performed and you will be able to see if another person matches your results. Two common and large databases that can be checked are Y-Search for Y-DNA comparisons and Mitosearch for Mitochondrial DNA comparisons.

Y-DNA 37 Marker
Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Marker DYS393 DYS390 DYS19 DYS391 DYS385a DYS385b DYS426 DYS388 DYS439 DYS389-1
Allele 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13
Number 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Marker DYS392 DYS389-2 DYS458 DYS459a DYS459b DYS455 DYS454 DYS447 DYS437 DYS448
Allele 13 29 17 9 9 11 11 25 15 18
Number 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Marker DYS449 DYS464a** DYS464b** DYS464c** DYS464d** DYS460 GATAH4 YCAIIA YCAIIB DYS456
Allele 30 15 15 16 16 11 11 19 23 16
Number 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
Marker DYS607 DYS576 DYS570 CDYa CDYb DYS442 DYS438
Allele 14 18 17 34 38 12 12
*AKA DYS394
**Values adjusted 19 May 2003
***Null values special, lab retests to confirm

mtDNA test results

Depending on your markers tested, you will receive segment analysis showing your differences with the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS).

Cambridge Reference Sequence
HVR116519C
1-10 11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 61-70 71-80 81-90 91-100
16000 ATTCTAATTT AAACTATTCT CTGTTCTTTC ATGGGGAAGC AGATTTGGGT ACCACCCAAG TATTGACTCA CCCATCAACA ACCGCTATGT ATTTCGTACA
16100 TTACTGCCAG CCACCATGAA TATTGTACGG TACCATAAAT ACTTGACCAC CTGTAGTACA TAAAAACCCA ATCCACATCA AAACCCCCTC CCCATGCTTA
16200 CAAGCAAGTA CAGCAATCAA CCCTCAACTA TCACACATCA ACTGCAACTC CAAAGCCACC CCTCACCCAC TAGGATACCA ACAAACCTAC CCACCCTTAA
16300 CAGTACATAG TACATAAAGC CATTTACCGT ACATAGCACA TTACAGTCAA ATCCCTTCTC GTCCCCATGG ATGACCCCCC TCAGATAGGG GTCCCTTGAC
16400 CACCATCCTC CGTGAAATCA ATATCCCGCA CAAGAGTGCT ACTCTCCTCG CTCCGGGCCC ATAACACTTG GGGGTAGCTA AAGTGAACTG TATCCGACAT
16500 CTGGTTCCTA CTTCAGGGTC ATAAAGCCTA AATAGCCCAC
CTTCAGGGCC
HVR2= 263G, 309.1C, 315.1C
+0 GATCACAGGT CTATCACCCT ATTAACCACT CACGGGAGCT CTCCATGCAT TTGGTATTTT CGTCTGGGGG GTATGCACGC GATAGCATTG CGAGACGCTG
+100 GAGCCGGAGC ACCCTATGTC GCAGTATCTG TCTTTGATTC CTGCCTCATC CTATTATTTA TCGCACCTAC GTTCAATATT ACAGGCGAAC ATACTTACTA
+200 AAGTGTGTTA ATTAATTAAT GCTTGTAGGA CATAATAATA ACAATTGAAT GTCTGCACAG CCACTTTCCA CACAGACATC ATAACAAAAA ATTTCCACCA
CCGCTTTCCA
+300 AACCCCCCCT CCCCCGCTTC TGGCCACAGC ACTTAAACAC ATCTCTGCCA AACCCCAAAA ACAAAGAACC CTAACACCAG CCTAACCAGA TTTCAAATTT
AACCCCCCCCT CCCCCCGCTTC
+400 TATCTTTTGG CGGTATGCAC TTTTAACAGT CACCCCCCAA CTAACACATT ATTTTCCCCT CCCACTCCCA TACTACTAAT CTCATCAATA CAACCCCCGC
+500 CCATCCTACC CAGCACACAC ACACCGCTGC TAACCCCATA CCCCGAACCA ACCAAACCCC AAAGACACCC CCCA

Example:

Individual has received results that show HVR1 as 16519C and HVR2 as 263G, 309.1C and 315.1C

For this individual with HVR1 value of 16519C there would be a change to the base at 16519 from a C to a T. It represents the differences between this mtDNA sequence and the Cambridge Reference Sequence ( CRS ). If that individual had an HRV2 value of 263G, 309.1C, 315,1C,then we would see that location 263 changed from an A to a G and an extra C would be present at 309 and 315. (See marked up segments above with changed values). In some cases you will see insertions  or deletions in your mtDNA sequence. If you have an insertion after base pair 309, for example, the insertion will be listed as 309.1C. In this case a single base pair insertion has been found in your mtDNA string, noted by the .1 and the protein is Cytosine, denoted by the C. If you have a 2 base pair insertion not shown) the results will look like this: 255.1C 255.2T. It is also possible that you have a deletion, where a base pair that was not copied and you just don't have a base pair at that particular place. A deletion looks like this: 224 - . The dash signifies that the location, 224 isn't in your mtDNA sequence and is represented by a minus sign at the site where the base should have been found.

An exact duplication of the mtDNA between two individuals means that the two individuals share a common female ancestor. Since the mutation rate of the mtDNA is much slower than the Y-DNA, the probabilities associated with the time to a Most Recent Common Ancestor ( MRCA) in a case of perfect mach will point to a common ancestor living farther back than in the case of the Y-DNA.

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