Analysis of Results
Depending on the extent (12, 25, 37, or 67 markers) of the Y- test
DNA you will receive a list of markers and their allele values.
After you have placed your order, a genetic test kit and instructions
will be mailed to you. Upon its' return your genetic sample will be
processed, and the results will be e-mailed to you and kept private and
confidential. A comparison between your specific genetic markers and those
of others in databases can then be performed and you will be able to see if
another person matches your results. Two common and large databases
that can be checked are
for Y-DNA comparisons and
for Mitochondrial DNA comparisons.
|Y-DNA 37 Marker|
|**Values adjusted 19 May 2003|
|***Null values special, lab retests to confirm|
mtDNA test results
Depending on your markers tested, you will receive segment analysis showing your differences with the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS).
|Cambridge Reference Sequence|
|HVR2= 263G, 309.1C, 315.1C|
Example:Individual has received results that show HVR1 as 16519C and HVR2 as 263G, 309.1C and 315.1C
For this individual with HVR1 value of 16519C there would be a change to the base at 16519 from a C to a T. It represents the differences between this mtDNA sequence and the Cambridge Reference Sequence ( CRS ). If that individual had an HRV2 value of 263G, 309.1C, 315,1C,then we would see that location 263 changed from an A to a G and an extra C would be present at 309 and 315. (See marked up segments above with changed values). In some cases you will see insertions or deletions in your mtDNA sequence. If you have an insertion after base pair 309, for example, the insertion will be listed as 309.1C. In this case a single base pair insertion has been found in your mtDNA string, noted by the .1 and the protein is Cytosine, denoted by the C. If you have a 2 base pair insertion not shown) the results will look like this: 255.1C 255.2T. It is also possible that you have a deletion, where a base pair that was not copied and you just don't have a base pair at that particular place. A deletion looks like this: 224 - . The dash signifies that the location, 224 isn't in your mtDNA sequence and is represented by a minus sign at the site where the base should have been found.
An exact duplication of the mtDNA between two individuals means that the two individuals share a common female ancestor. Since the mutation rate of the mtDNA is much slower than the Y-DNA, the probabilities associated with the time to a Most Recent Common Ancestor ( MRCA) in a case of perfect mach will point to a common ancestor living farther back than in the case of the Y-DNA.